Thursday, February 20, 2020

Air pollution in US Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Air pollution in US - Essay Example Air pollution has had adverse effects on the people of the US. Indoor air pollution may trigger allergic reactions in sensitive individuals, including asthma, respiratory-tract infections, emphysema, cardiovascular diseases and bronchitis (Phalen and Phalen 30). Some effects may be fatal or severely debilitating such as cancer, heart disease and some respiratory diseases and may only be noticed after repeated or long periods of exposure. Treatable effects include irritation of the nose, eyes and throat, dizziness, fatigue and headaches. The effects of outdoor pollutants include permanent lung damage, irritation of the respiratory system, asthma attacks, susceptibility to respiratory infections and acute bronchitis (EPA). Some have severe effects such as lead which accumulates in bones and adversely affects kidney function, the nervous system, cardiovascular system as well as developmental and reproductive systems. Environmentally, air pollution is responsible for climate change and g lobal warming through the greenhouse effect. It is important that air pollution is reduced to levels that have minimal environmental and health effects. Statistics from EPA show significant reduction of the emission of pollutant gases in the period between 2000 and 2012. Carbon monoxide emission reduced by 51%, lead by 50%, while that of sulfur dioxide reduced by 66%. In line with this, EPA promulgates regulations that should be followed by individual citizens, businesses, communities and states.

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Business law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Business law - Essay Example The issue in respect of this question requires an analysis of invitation to treat, unilateral offer, offer, acceptance, rejection and past consideration. Each of these elements would be discussed and an evaluation in line with the facts would be made. An offer has been defined as an expression of willingness by one party known as the offeror, to contract or be bound on stated terms, provided that such terms are accepted by the party to whom the offer is made that is the offeree. The courts have distinguished between an offer and an invitation to treat, this is because the latter is merely an expression of willingness by one party to enter into negotiations and so is not unconditional and there is a lack of intention. Invitation to treat has been defined as an expression of willingness of a party to enter into negotiations with another with the hope that a contract would be reached at the end of such negotiations. (Fisher v Bell)1. As for advertisements, it has been strictly said to b e an invitation to treat (Partridge v Crittenden)2, however, the courts have interpreted advertisements in a manner which allows for certain exceptions to be created and the main reasons for that has been cited to be intention to be bound and certainty (Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Co.)3. Further, the advertisement of an auction sale is generally only an invitation to treat (Harris v Nickerson)4. The opinions as to when an offer is made have differed. The next issue that would be looked into is acceptance which is defined an unequivocal assent to the terms that has been proposed by the offeror. The general rule for the acceptance of an offer is that the offer should be accepted unconditionally and must be communicated to the offeror. ( Holwell Securities v. Hughes5) . However, there are a number of exceptions to the rule of communication of acceptance and one of them is the highly criticised postal rule. The rule has been criticised because of the adoption it took despite the vario us option that were available to it. In Adams v Lindsell6 it was held that the acceptance takes place when the offeree posts the letter of acceptance. Instantaneous modes of communication has lately been scrutinized by the courts (Lord Wilberforce in Brinkibon Ltd. v Stahag Stahl GmbH), the courts have been supportive of the fact that communication should be made to the offeree and he must have knowledge of that in respect of instantaneous mode of communication. As far as the advertisement that has been placed by Mary is concerned it can be said that it is clearly an invitation to treat and cannot in any way be construed to be a unilateral offer as there is no intention in that respect. In respect of the information that she provided to Rose it was merely an invitation to treat whereby she discussed that she would reduce price and so there was no offer in that respect. In respect of the message that had been left by Rose of the 800 pound, it can be said that that was an offer which had been made by Rose. As far as acceptance was concerned, Mary did try to make the acceptance, but the problem that arises in that respect is the fact that there had been a problem in respect of the instantaneous mode of communication and so the communication did not take place and therefore the acceptance is not effective. In the case of Matthew it can be said that he did not make an offer was it was conditional upon him receiving the payment from his father and therefore does not satisfy the criteria for a valid offer to be existent. In respect of silence constituting to be acceptance it has been an accepted phenomena that silence cannot constitute to be acceptance. (Felthouse v. Bendley)7 . Considering the decision on silence, the act of John leaving the cheque and silence of Mary would not lead to an acceptance. Furthermore, the actions of Mary destroying the cheque also go against the notion of acceptance by conduct and therefore no acceptance has taken place. As far as past c onsideration is concerned, the courts have clearly laid down the fact

Monday, January 27, 2020

Psychology Essays Psychiatric Diagnosis

Psychology Essays Psychiatric Diagnosis To what extent do the negative implications of a psychiatric diagnosis outweigh the benefits? The idea that a diagnosis of mental illness can be more harmful than beneficial is a concept which many might find surprising. However if we examine the emergence of sociological theories originating from the symbolic interactionist movement of the 1960s we can construct an argument based on these theoretical insights as to how a diagnosis of being mentally ill might be harmful outside of the implications for possible treatment with which such a diagnosis would bring. In this manner we consider what the most effective strategy of treatment should be. Emerging from dissatisfaction with the structural functionalists theories drawing on symbolic interactionists are interested in analysing how the various interactions between people within social situations are played out (Rogers and Pilgrim, 2001). In the works of Goffman this is portrayed as a drama with actors of sorts and his work on stigma for example showed how the rules of the game varied for people perceived as being different in some way (Goffman, 1968a, 1968b). Thus in relation to mental health it is the possible societal reactions arising out of a diagnosis of mental illness which is the vital element. The theory which developed out of these ideas hence became known as labelling theory and it became strongly associated with the anti-psychiatry movement of the late 1960s and 1970s (Cockerham, 1992). At the heart of this theory are two concepts related to deviance or mental disorder these being called primary deviance and secondary deviance. Primary deviance refers to those symptoms which do indeed have a basis and grounding in clinical symptoms. These are the actual incidences of disease. Labelling theorists have some interesting things to say about this, in that namely much of primary deviance goes undiagnosed (Pilgrim and Rogers, 1999). The reasons for this is the reaction of those around the sufferer attempting to make sense of the individuals behaviour, rationalising it until a certain point is reached when it is impossible to dismiss the behaviour as aberrant anymore. Indeed labelling theorists argued that it was not just family members or other people close to suffers who displayed this sort of behaviour but also medical practitioners demonstrating a wide range and extensive set of either mis-diagnosis or non-diagnosis of mental illness (Yarrow et al, 1955). However it is the realm of secondary deviance in which labelling theory has the most interesting things to say and it is here this essay argues that the most harmful aspects of a diagnosis of mental illness can be found. For labelling theorists secondary deviance refers to ways in which other members of society, the psychiatric and medical profession and eventually the person who has been diagnosed act as a result of the category of mentally ill being applied to them (Pilgrim and Rogers, 2001). Working from this supposition then a number of factors are critical for labelling theorists and one of the most important is how conformist a particular society is. The reason for this is that the higher a level of conformity is found in a society the greater the chance that a particular behaviour which breaks the rules of that society will be labelled as deviant. A particularly interesting feature of this idea built upon subsequently by social constructivist theories is that concepts of deviancy also change as the conformity levels of a society alter, thus while homosexuality was a deviant behaviour for western societies in the 19th century and psychiatric treatment was recommended for those who were afflicted with the disorder the changing prevalent views on homosexuality have lessened its perception as a deviant behaviour, though not completely dispelled it (Cockerham, 1992). In a series of studies it was demonstrated that otherwise sane people who mentioned specific circumstances of strange behaviour were labelled as insane and where those people did normal behaviours these other behaviours in turn then became labelled as insane and became seen as part of the behavioural pattern of the insane person. Thus in Rosenhams (1973) study his fake patients who gained admission into institutions and who were taking notes of their own observation and treatment by doctors had in the observations kept on them notes on how they displayed incessant note taking behaviour. Thus patients who are labelled as mentally ill face difficulties when they try to escape the label and the behaviours which are the objects of labelling. Even where for example patients have been cured they will carry the stigma of such a label and the consequent reactions of people who learn of the past status of the individual will labelling theory argues lead to a vicious cycle of reinforcement of both label and behaviour. However while labelling theory was a powerful critique of psychiatric practice which was popular also it has since fallen out of favour and its concepts can be critiqued on a number of grounds. In Yarrows study case it was found that subsequent to the experiment that his patients in fact did not continue to display aberrant behaviours for long after the study. Thus we can argue that there is a weakness in the idea of a secondary deviance, that for those who are not mentally ill the labelling of being mentally ill which while it might have an effect may not be as strong as the theory suggests (Rogers and Pilgrim, 1999). But it remains to be said that the practice of diagnosis and cure of the mentally ill must be aware of the broader social environments in which those who are mentally ill will operate in, thus a primarily bio-medical model of mental health, i.e. in that there is a specific cause which when cured will make the patient better, is inadequate and as labelling theory and more recently the field of health psychology suggests we must consider a holistic type therapy which factors in the effects of wider social phenomenon such as the reactions of people and clinicians to the patient in order that effective strategies of cure can be developed which benefit the person involved (Heller, 1996). As such while moves away from institutional care can be commended as ceasing to separate the mentally ill from society and thus stigmatising them in a highly visible manner the effectiveness of community care must be judged against both successful curative techniques and levels of effective integration wi th the community setting in which the care is provided.

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Rich Christians Living in a Poor World :: Free Essays

"Let them eat cake" -- Marie-Antoinette "The poor you will always have with you" -- Matthew 26:11 There is a difference in wealth between the north/south divide. The Rich north obtains nearly four fifths of the worlds income whereas the Poor South has only one fifth. The North is rich and the South is poverty-stricken. By the word "rich I mean in a material sense - the north has plenty of material and financial wealth whereas the South has very little. However, for many people in the south, being materially wealthy is not something they desire, and they are therefore spiritually rich. It is impossible for many in the Rich North to be spiritually rich "oh how hard it is for the rich to enter the kingdom of God". Although, if they were to share their riches with the poor (as the bible encourages them to do) then having money, when used for the benefit of others is a good thing. 'For the love of money is the root of all evil: which while some coveted after, they have erred from the faith, and pierced themselves through with many sorrows.' Timothy 6:10. It is possible for world equality to be accomplished. The amount of money that requires appears a lot but when compared with the amount spent in HDC's on various things (such as cosmetics and ice cream) it appears to be a small amount. The following statistics are taken from the 1999 United Nations Human Development Report. Basic education, water and sanitation, and basic health and nutrition for every human on the planet would cost $28 billion. But that is $8 billion less than is spent on American cosmetics, ice cream in Europe and pet foods combined. It is thought by many that having no rich Christians while there is poverty in the world would be ridiculous. Having a certain number of rich Christians means that charities are able to operate. These charities help not only materially poor but spiritually poor to gain a better standard of life (before and after death.) If the Christians

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Brilliant Public Speaking: An Informational Video

Brilliant Public Speaking Amber Owens BECOME/275 Business Communications and Critical Thinking August 5, 2014 Brilliant Public Speaking was a very informational video. I enjoyed hearing from each and every person In the video. Each person brought something new to the table and gave their view of public speaking. The one thing that stood out of my mind the most is how each and every one of them said to make the speech personal. One person said that facts are true, but stories sell.In other words make the speech something they want to hear. Don't bore them by constantly repeating the same thing and staying the same tone. This video tied In well with this week's topic because It shows how effectively to communicate when giving a speech in the workplace. The flare factor would be the practice I use. The reason I would use this practice Is because I want to make sure my audience stays focused on the subject at hand. I want them to see the passion and the drive that I have for the subject that I am liking about and presenting to them.I want them to stay excited with me, and as I get fired up, I want them to get fired up. Keeping people's attention is hard so when going with the flare practice you may not keep all their attention but you're sure at least to keep half the audience's attention. Just like one speaker said sex, drugs and rock and roll. That gets people's attention, and the began to want to know more about what you are saying. My advice to anyone giving a speech is to stick to the subject and be passionate about what you talk about.Make sure you have plenty of facts as we as personal stories to back your speech up. Relax, breathe and don't' talk too fast. People want to know what you are saying and why you are saying it. Make the speech fun yet informing so that the audience doesn't have time even to think about nodding off. Start strong and end strong, so the audience knows that you're still Just as passionate.

Friday, January 3, 2020

The Indian Commodity Markets Finance Essay - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 6 Words: 1834 Downloads: 9 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Narrative essay Did you like this example? The Indian commodity markets have come a long way since the establishment of the informal trading platforms, both in terms of trading volumes and the stakeholders involved in the commodity markets. The recent global economic downturn resulted in significant job losses and large scale unemployment across a spectrum of sectors. However, the agricultural and food sector had been considerably secured from the effects of this downturn, with little job losses. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The Indian Commodity Markets Finance Essay" essay for you Create order Also, since agricultural activities , still being the mainstay and one of the most significant contributors to the Indian economy, it becomes significantly imperative for the presence of regulated formal trading platforms and establishment of authorized exchanges and bourses to overlook the large volumes of transactions in a secure and formalized manner. This would , apart from keeping a check on malpractices and frauds also facilitate in governing the overall process of the transaction in a highly efficient and transparent manner, also competitively enable to generate the right and fair prices for the farmers and other stake holders involved, thus gradually developing the ideal perfect market scenario in the Indian context. INTRODUCTION Statement of the Problem To study the Indian Commodity Markets the impact of regulated commodity exchanges for the Indian agricultural sector. Purpose of Study Significance of Study The Indian commodity markets have come a long way since the establishment of the informal trading platforms, both in terms of trading volumes and the stakeholders involved in the commodity markets. Hence it becomes significantly imperative for the presence of regulated formal trading platforms and establishment of authorized exchanges and bourses to overlook the transactions in a secure and formalized manner. This study hence focuses mainly on the impact of such formalized bourses on the most largely traded commodity, i.e. agricultural products markets and the resultant effect on the overall agricultural sector of the country. Methodology The most significant aspect of a research paper is the overall structure and the systematic flow of data which is adhered to in order to convey the crux of the matter. The data to be assessed for the research would basically consists of two major kernels of data collection and assessment i.e. the primary and the secondary data. The secondary data would majorly consists of the work of previous researchers, their research works and thesis and information gathered from encyclopedias , journals and magazines relevant to the area of study. This data would form the background and lay the foundation for the further study and would frequently be referred to during the scope of the research work. This secondary data is significantly based on the work extracted from online libraries and encyclopedias like JStor and MPRA. The primary data will be majorly based on the significant factors which are synergetic between commodities and commodity exchanges, in turn, affecting the nuances of the Ind ian agricultural sector and its subsequent stakeholders. REVIEW OF LITERATURE In the research work, Indian Agricultural Commodity Futures Markets : A Performance Survey, Dr. Kedarnath Mukherjee has thrown light upon the gradual evolution of trading patterns in commodity products both OTC (Over The Counter) and at exchanges, regulated and unregulated. Significantly, acute focus has been the vast number of agricultural commodities and their byproducts which are traded in several exchanges extensively .this paper basically examines six different commodities , which have been traded long enough , to enable their performance to be evaluated. The assessment is primarily based on the evaluation of the member-ship pattern over time, extent of liquidity, price volatility, basis1 risk, and pattern. The results indicate that most of these markets are yet to develop fully as efficient mechanisms of risk management and price discovery. Also examined is the co-integration between futures and cash markets, efficiency, and lack of bias to reflect their performance in discov ering prices . In the Impact of Futures Trading on Indian Agricultural Commodity Market ,Dr. Kedarnath Mukherjee through the medium of this research study makes an attempt to re-validate the impact of futures trading on agricultural commodity market in India and emphasizes on the significance and instrumentality in establishing the agricultural commodity market, by focusing on futures contract .Various econometric models are used and data from the daily price information in spot and futures markets, for a period of 7 years (2004 2010), for 9 major agricultural commodities is taken from different categories of Agri-products is fed in to the models. The empirical findings significantly throw light on the comparative parallel advantage of futures market in deciphering information, leading to a significant price discovery and risk management, that can again help to successfully evolve the underlying commodity market in India. The study focuses on the pressure of inflation from commodit y, significantly agricultural commodity, where observations show that prices have acutely risen after the establishment of future contracts. Since the future contracts have a very casual destabilizing effect, varying over a long duration of time, instead of curbing the commodity futures market, it can always be suggested to strengthen the market structure to achieve the wider scope of the target. In the research work, Implications of Economic and Financial Crisis for Agricultural Sector of India, Deepak Shah, (March 2012) , has showcased that although the global economic downturn has resulted in large-scale job losses and mass unemployment in many export-oriented sectors, the situation in food and agricultural sector has remained stable with little job losses. However, since agricultural sector in India has somewhat different entity, the impact of global crisis in this sector is seen to have percolated in varied forms. During the period of slowdown when there stood virtual ban on fo odgrain exports, the raw sugar was subjected to zero import tariff, leading to widespread protest by the sugar industry. The free imports of raw sugar raised concerns regarding cultivation of sugarcane in the country. Adequate control obviously needs to be exercised on the domestic prices of all essential commodities of common consumption, including sugar. Interestingly, despite decline in income elasticity of demand for cereals in India, the low-income groups still show positive income elasticity of demand for cereals, indicating little tendency of decline in demand for cereals even if income falls marginally. This not only ensures higher demand for farm produce but also significantly high demand for labour in agriculture. However, the global economic recession has certainly compounded the problems of cash crop growers as the farmers producing cash crops saw lower prices on offer for their produce despite rise in food prices. Further, though prices of edible oil in India declined d ue to crash in world prices of oilseeds, the price of non-food primary products hardly changed. Nonetheless, the major cause of concern for the food sector of India is the 10 per cent rise in wholesale prices of cereals between December 2007 and December 2008 period as this has resulted in reduction in real income of all urban and rural household. Although government has resorted to initiate some measures to check prices, there still stand various other measures to be initiated to safeguard Indian economy from global economic slowdown. In the research work , An evidence of speculation in Indian commodity markets, the author, Vijay Kumar Varadi, ICRIER, New Delhi, India , has focused on the recent price surge in commodity markets which has stipulated intensity of various factors which lead price volatility. There are multi-factors such as traditional supply and demand factors, excess global liquidity i.e., monetary inflows in commodity markets and financialization i.e., financial investors (portfolio investment and speculation) attitude. This paper is an attempt to investigate for the evidence and its impact of speculation on volatility of commodity prices in Indian commodity markets. Overall, results show that speculation has played decisive role in the price bubble during the global crisis. The research work by Modena and Matteo, Agricultural commodities and financial markets, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milano focuses on the strong inverse correlation between financial markets returns and the movements of food commodity prices. The sharp raise of the price of agricultural commodities between 2006 and 2008 seems to have a rationalization that goes beyond the mere interaction between supply and demand. Moreover, such an inverse relationship has clearly emerged during the recent financial crisis. The authors throw light on the fact that the financial factors, instead of other determinants, play a significant part in determining the dynamics of agri cultural commodity prices. In particular, there seems to be a common source underlying food price changes and the financial markets dynamics. The authors have categorically layed down facts to strengthen the opinion that portfolio adjustments of financial agents are the main factor for large fluctuations of food commodity prices. Pankaj Kumar Gupta and Sunita Ravi , Centre for Management Studies, JMI University, New Delhi, India in their work Commodity Market Inefficiencies and Inflationary Pressures Indias Economic Policy Dilemma have highlighted the fact that with the advent of the economic liberalization and the subsequent large scale investments in the Indian markets, there is a general consensus that India would emerge as a major player in the international market in terms of commodity consumption, production and trade. As per the figures suggested by the trade volumes and price varying and price decisive factors of commodities, the futures and spot markets have shown major va riations. The prime significance of the study lies in the fact that it tries to indulge in the regulatory aspects of the governing bodies towards commodity exchanges, and categorically explores the extent to which futures trading be allowed on the commodity exchanges and how to curb and patch the loopholes in the commodity market. This research study vividly and conclusively focuses on the fact that one of the most significant reasons for the integration of the domestic and international financial markets has been the increased volatility in asset which has in turn led to the accentuating in the demand for the trading in the derivative market. With the establishment of regulated commodity exchanges, a great boost has been provided to speculators, hedgers and other market participants to capitalize on the development and has exponentially increased the trade volumes of the commodity derivative markets in the new form with nationwide electronic trading . Liquidity booms reflected by l oose monetary policy are responsible for major surge in commodity prices globally in addition to direct tangible impacts of oil prices especially in developing countries with heavy oil imports like India. Huge price volatility in futures segment on the commodity exchanges has therefore raised concerns relating to the market efficiencies, infrastructure and knowledge and also their consequential impact on cash markets. Climatic conditions, availability of critical inputs and government policies are imperative factors which are responsible for the demand and supply side of the commodity price mechanism .This research paper also focuses on the important aspect of the consumer wholesale price index , and its governing factors. The study also highlights certain significant issues and tries to answer important dilemmatic questions such as (a) to import or not? (b) What should be the interest rates reflected by the monetary policy, (c) can we or should we control monetary inflows from out side? (d) Should we support the farmers or the consumption masses?

Thursday, December 26, 2019

Juvenile Recidivism and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

Juvenile Recidivism and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (Participant Information Sheet and Consent Form)-Appendix B As part of the requirements for a degree in Criminal Justice at the State University of New York at Buffalo, I have to conduct a research study. This research looks at the effects of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on recidivism rates. Prison recidivism rates continue to be a problem in the United States. Just within the first 3 years of release from prison, it is estimated that more than 40 percent offenders commit new crimes and are once again incarcerated. This is an obvious sign that the implemented programs and policies to combat recidivism are failing. This study looks at cognitive-behavioral therapy, the most known†¦show more content†¦We ask that you provide accurate responses. You do not have to answer any question(s) you feel uncomfortable answering during the interview(s). This study will not be anonymous as it requires us to collect names for the purpose of completing this research. For the purpose of this study, information will remain confidential. To ensure confidentiality, Non-involving persons or agencies will not have access to information collected to ensure confidentiality. Participation in this study is completely voluntary. You have the right to refuse to answer any question you feel uncomfortable or embarrassed to answer. You have the right to withdraw yourself from the study at any time. No risks are anticipated as a result of participation in this study. Your current prison term will not be effected should you refuse to participate, withdraw your consent, or discontinue participation Each participant who completes their participation in this study is awarded early release from prison This study was reviewed by the Department of Ethics Committee, the Criminal Justice Department, Sociology Department, and the Department of Applied Psychology. If you need any further information or have questions at any time during the study, you can contact me: Magdalena Mpinga (315) 383-7128 mpingam01@mail.buffalostate.edu Please sign theShow MoreRelatedThe Effects Of Sexual Offending On Adult Offenders1202 Words   |  5 PagesIntroduction Most research on sexual offending focuses on adult offenders, however, juveniles also engage in such behaviors. 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